Q: Why should bakers consider using a calcium-based leavening acid?
A: Concerns that diets high in sodium contribute to hypertension have caused consumers to request healthier lower sodium food products. Use of sodium-free calcium leavenings are an economical way to reduce sodium levels, raise calcium levels, and address the growing health concerns of consumers. Choices are: monocalcium phosphates (fast acting), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (very slow acting) and calcium acid pyrophosphate/monocalcium phosphate (with an identical reaction rate to SAPP 28).
Q: How much sodium does sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) actually contribute?
A: Sodium acid pyrophosphate contributes a significant amount of sodium to baked products. It contains 21,000 mg/100 g of sodium. Salt and sodium bicarbonate are the two other main contributors of sodium. Together, these three ingredients make up 95 percent to 99 percent of the sodium content in baked products.
Q: How much of a sodium reduction is achieved when calcium-based leavening acid is used in place of SAPP?
A: In most formulas, a 25 percent to 30 percent reduction can be achieved by replacing SAPP with calcium-based leavening. For additional reductions, the sodium bicarbonate must be replaced with potassium bicarbonate. Calcium-based leavenings are comparable in cost to sodium leavenings, with the added benefit of additional calcium.
Q: When a calcium-based leavening acid is used, what type of nutritional claim could a baker possibly make?
A: U.S. FDA regulations permit a “reduced sodium” label claim if the sodium content is reduced by 25 percent. As discussed above, this can be achieved by only replacing SAPP. To make a low sodium claim the sodium level per serving must be 140 mg or less. This requires the use of a calcium leavening acid and a percentage of sodium bicarbonate with potassium bicarbonate, depending on the formulation.
Q: How does the neutralizing value (NV) and dough rate of reaction of a calcium-based leavening acid compare to SAPP?
A: Monocalcium phosphates have a neutralizing value (NV) of 80 (monohydrate), and 83 (anhydrous). Slower acting calcium leavening (CAPP/MCP) has an identical NV to SAPP: 72. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCP-D) has a low NV of 33. DCP-D is heat reactive. Reaction takes place at a temperature of 135°F making it too slow to use by itself. Monocalciums are much faster reacting than SAPP 28. The slow calcium phosphate (CAPP/MCP) has an identical rate of reaction to SAPP 28, making it the perfect SAPP 28 replacement.
Q: Describe the type of applications that are suitable for a calcium-based leavening acid.
A: Calcium phosphates can be used in a wide range of baked products, from baking powders to cake products, pancakes, biscuits and muffins. Choosing the proper one depends on which SAPP you are replacing. For SAPP 28, the slower calcium phosphate (CAPP/MCP) will, in most products, be a one for one replacement. For faster acting SAPPs consider the MCPs or CAPP/MCP with MCP-A blends.
Q: How does substitution of SAPP with a calcium-based leavening acid affect the flavor profile of the finished baked product?
A: SAPPs have a slight aftertaste, known as a “pyro” taste. Calcium phosphates are bland or neutral in taste. You may notice that when using calciums, your other flavors are more noticeable.
John Brodie, technical service manager, Baking, Innophos, Inc. email@example.com
What are the advantages of using CAL-RISE® as a leavening agent?
Cal-Rise® is sodium free with an 18 percent calcium content. With a dough rate of reaction (DRR) similar to SAPP 28 and the same neutralizing value (72), it is a one to one replacement. This allows formulators to easily replace SAPP 28 with Cal-Rise to offer lower sodium baked products with the added benefit of higher calcium. In most products, sodium reduction and calcium claims can be made.
Aside from its leavening action, what other functions does CAL-RISE have?
Cal-Rise will act as a dough conditioner in dough products. The calcium ions help strengthen the gluten network. In frozen dough products, ice crystal formation will weaken the gluten network. It is important not only to have a strong gluten network but one that will enhance water absorption to minimize ice crystal formation. CAPP is widely used in frozen dough products for this reason.
How can I learn more about Innophos and its calcium-based leavening agent?
Challenge our baking expert, John Brodie, at Innophos for suggestions on how to reduce sodium in your formulation. Innophos is the leading North American manufacturer of specialty phosphates with a complete range of food-grade phosphates for baking, beverage, dairy, meat, seafood, poultry and nutritional-supplement applications.
For more information, contact
Innophos, Inc. at
Technical Service: 866-631-7394