As suppliers come up with more and better solutions, bakers are facing fewer obstacles in formulating products with healthful fibers and starches.
For a healthful diet, experts recommend that consumers ingest approximately 12 grams of fiber for every 1,000 calories. They also recommend that daily intake come from a combination of soluble and insoluble fiber, because they complement each other and provide different benefits. Bakers are scrambling to meet these needs and new suppliers are offering a range of products to help.
Fibers come in two general forms. The more familiar soluble and viscous soluble fibers have many benefits, including moderating blood glucose levels and lowering cholesterol. They also can replace sugars, eggs and fats/ oils, reducing cost to the baker and calories to the consumer.
Insoluble fiber, on the other hand, is what previous generations called roughage or bulk–it does not absorb or dissolve in water. It passes through the digestive system without much transformation. Insoluble fiber is well known for its intestinal health benefits, including a reduction in the risk and occurrence of colorectal cancer, hemorrhoids and constipation.
Some of the newer products offer a combination or crossover between soluble and insoluble. Marc Green, senior marketing communications manager for National Starch, Bridgewater, N.J., says the research indicates different types of fibers offer different benefits– not all fibers are the same. There are three major mechanisms differentiating all fibers:
• Bulking (i.e., wheat fiber provides the most bulking for regularity)
• Viscosity (i.e., beta-glucan thickens the contents of the intestinal tract, slowing absorption of cholesterol)
• Fermentation (inulin/FOS and resistant starch are fermented)
“The benefits are dependent upon the mechanism,” he says. Rajen Mehta, Ph.D, director, fiber applications, SunOpta Ingredients, Minnetonka, Minn., agrees, stating that dietary fiber influences both nutritional value and functional characteristics of baked products. “Fiber and starch are coming together because both are carbohydrates,” he says. “First, there are the classic fibers which have the properties we have always known, such as reducing calories and adding TDF (total dietary fiber). The calorie issue is coming back with a vengeance, along with satiety in the fight against obesity. New dimensions now coming in are lowering cholesterol and warding off heart disease. Also, there is the glucose modulation for diabetics. Satiety, immunity and prevention of certain types of cancer will likely be the new frontier in three to six years–the new frontiers are exciting.”
Archer Daniels Midland Co. (ADM), Decatur, Ill., is helping bakers add more fiber yet retain products’ critical full sensory appeal. Its resistant starch, Fibersol-2, is produced by a proprietary process that involves breaking down corn starch under heat and low pH, then enzymatically rearranging the resulting dextrins into a digestion-resistant form. The resulting digestion-resistant maltodextrin is purified and dried. It’s an off-white powder, available in both standard and agglomerated forms, which has a low viscosity in an aqueous solution, even at high concentrations, and imparts no flavors or odors.
“Using Fibersol-2, the dietary fiber content and nutritional value of practically any food product can be increased. In fact, consumers’ daily recommended value for fiber (25 grams) can be met by using Fibersol-2 digestion resistant maltodextrin in food applications,” Zach Gooding, product development scientist, says.
Kati Ledbetter, application/product development food scientist, adds that Fibersol-2 is 90 percent dietary fiber by weight and is easy to incorporate into any bakery application by using in place of or in addition to other carbohydrates.
“Since Fibersol-2 only contains 0.2 g of sugars per 10 g (dry basis, typical value), it can be used to replace sugar or high-sugar ingredients and can be used in reduced sugar, sugar-free and no-sugar-added applications,” she says. “When used in conjunction with high intensity sweeteners in these types of applications, Fibersol-2 can also improve sweet taste to become a more sugar-like flavor. Since Fibersol-2 has been shown to only contain 1.6 kcal/ gram, when used to replace 4 kcal/ gram carbohydrates in a formulation, it can also be used to achieve a total calorie reduction in baked goods.”
According to both Gooding and Ledbetter, Fibersol-2 does not require any change to the baking process, time or temperature. It requires minimal formulation adjustment to incorporate, and can be added with the flour, sugar or other dry ingredients.
Citri-Fi® from Fiberstar, River Falls, Wis., is an all-natural, functional ingredient made from citrus pulp that is specially suited for adding moistness, controlling moisture migration, improving yields, partially replacing fat and eggs and reducing the cost of a variety of food products. Citri-Fi not only holds water, it binds it and does not release it over time–even through baking and freezethaw conditions. The oil and waterbinding functionality of Citri-Fi makes it a natural fat replacer that maintains taste and texture while reducing cost. It is based on orange pulp, a by-product of orange juice production.
“The product itself is roughly 70 percent total dietary fiber, and it is used at such a low level it doesn’t really add much fiber content to the finished product, but because it binds so much water, it can be used to reduce cost and calories. It can also be used to replace oil because it has a fat-like, creamy mouthfeel, or as an egg replacer because of its emulsification properties,” Brock Lundberg, vice president of technology says.
The benefits to the baker are cost savings and reduction of fat and calories. Additionally, moisture stays bound in the products to keep a uniform distribution, imparting a more moist mouthfeel. Not much is needed to gain the main benefits, so the initial cost impact is minimal. The product keeps texture consistent and gives baked products a longer shelf life. By allowing the baker to reduce up to 50 percent of fats, oils and 25 percent of eggs, it reduces overall product formula cost.
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“It is also amorphous, so that when a baker incorporates it, it is very smooth and blends well. It adds a great mouthfeel,” Lundberg says. “ It can be used in all yeast-rising baked products, cakes, cookies, fillings, frostings and toppings. The cost savings and nutrition benefits are probably going to be greatest in any product that use higher amounts of fats, oils and/or eggs–just because there is more to replace.”
MGP Ingredients, Inc., Atchison, Kan., offers resistant wheat starch as well as a full range of specialty wheat starches and proteins. The resistant wheat starch is a convenient way to add dietary fiber while maintaining desired sensory attributes.
“In white whole grain breads, resistant starch can boost fiber content while maintaining the desirable white color. Our Fibersym™RW is a resistant wheat starch that delivers 85 percent dietary fiber on a dry basis. It has a neutral flavor and white color, resulting in a nearly invisible source of fiber,” Steve Ham, corporate director of marketing, says. “Its low water-holding capacity makes it ideal for flour replacement, as well as increasing the freshness of snack foods and batter products.”
MGP resistant starch is, by and large, interchangeable with wheat flour. Fibersym RW is a source of dietary fiber that can be incorporated with minimal processing adjustments. Because it possesses a low water-holding capacity, this allows easy incorporation without needing to adjust the formula or the baking process. According to Ham, its particle size is identical to that of wheat.
Many bakers that have come to MGP have been working on creating highfiber baked products for months to try to formulate a high-fiber crumb that reproduces all expected qualities, particularly in cake-type baked products. “But they run into the problem of having to continually adjust ingredient ratios and compensate with different baking times, and they still don’t come close enough to the original taste and texture they are trying to copy,” he says. “With a cellulose-based type of fiber, it holds so much water that it is changing, the whole ratio and the products lose both sweetness and saltiness because it is diluting the formulation so much. Fibersym TW does not change anything in the flavor, texture or basic mouth-feel of the baked product. We call it the most convenient fiber that you’ll never notice,” he adds.
National Starch has a unique portfolio of texturizers, viscosifiers, ingredient replacers and dietary fibers. “Our formulations experts can help create betterfor- you baked products that taste great, deliver fine, uniform cell structures and work well within existing manufacturing processes,” Green says.
“Our Hi-maize® whole grain corn flour has a fine particle size suitable for baking. Bakers can capitalize on new carbohydrate-focused diets by adding natural resistant starch to their foods with Hi-maize resistant starch. Our substantial body of scientific evidence supports labeling claims to reinforce the benefits with consumers and attract new customers,” he adds.
“One company added Hi-maize labeling statements (supports a healthy weight, helps maintain healthy blood sugar levels and promotes energy balance) to the front package of their label and saw sales increase by 40 percent,” Rhonda Witwer, senior business development manager, soluble fiber, says.
Patrick O’Brien, business analyst, says Hi-maize resistant starch has similar water holding as flour, allowing the dough to be handled normally. “The result for bakers is higher-quality baked goods, more consistency within the bakery and less wasted dough. Hi-maize resistant starch is a white, bland-tasting powder that makes higher-quality baked goods–breads are light and fluffy and similar height to unfortified bread; cell structure is fine and consistent; the bread is white and not gray or yellow,” he says.
NUTRIOSE® soluble fiber from National Starch is manufactured by Roquette in France. It is fermented, but it does not cause the fermentation side effects that other well-known fermentable fibers (inulin and fructo-oligosaccharide) cause. “It has very high process tolerance and can add dietary fiber to foods such as cereal, baked goods, beverages, diary and snacks without also delivering digestive upset and customer complaints,” Lorraine Niba, soluble fiber marketing manager adds.
Two new products that address moisture management are HOMECRAFT® Create 765 specialty flour, and HOMECRAFT Create gluten-free solutions. “For cost and fat reduction, we are recommending these to bakers of cakes and brownies. In dry mixes or finished products, 765 manages moisture well. This characteristic helps baker reduce fat by 25-60 percent to save money and calories, while still maintaining excellent moistness and eating qualities,” Dr. Yadunandan Dar, senior manager, materials science, says.
SunOpta Ingredients is the world’s largest producer of oat fiber. Rajen Mehta says texture, mouthfeel, enhanced product life and reduced cost are the four main benefits of adding the right fiber blend to products. “One of the challenges bakers face when reducing carbohydrate sweeteners like sugar to reduce calories is that many non-nutritive sweeteners do not provide the same texture and mouthfeel. Similarly, even many whole grains and seeds can limit texture acceptance. That can easily be controlled by choosing and using the right fiber,” he says.
Sun Opta’s classic line contains 15 varieties of oat fiber. While they are all high in fiber content, each offers different qualities–textural characteristics, mouthfeel, etc. The oat fibers, which are insoluble fibers and brans, are heat stabilized to add to shelf life. “For bakers, oat fiber in its various forms is ideal for increasing fiber content while reducing calories, enhancing texture, improving moisture retention extending shelf life and increasing yield, all which optimize process and product characteristics,” Mehta says.
MultiFiber™ 1500 (TDF 79) is the new blend of oat fiber, dextrin, wheat bran and corn starch addressing most yeast-leavened baked products, mixes, crackers and cookies.
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Barley Balance™ is a new product that Mehta says is the most cost-effective beta-glucan source on the market today. It is a fine, light powder that contains more than 25 percent beta-glucan and more than 35 percent total dietary fiber, adding superb nutritional benefits and functional performance to food and beverage products. “Due to its ability to bind water and form a soft, thermoreversible gel, Barley Balance can be used to provide functional advantages such as a creamy, fat-like texture in reduced-fat baked goods,” Mehta says.
SunOpta also offers Pea Fiber 300. It is made from the seed coats of non-GMO, field-dried, Canadian peas. It has a bland flavor, light color and smooth texture, and it is an excellent choice for fiber fortification with up to 90 percent dietary fiber. Each of these products can lead to better health claims, longer shelf life and better flavor and texture.
TIC Gums, White Marsh, Md., specializes in advanced hydrocolloids and gum systems. Gums are 80 percent soluble dietary fiber, providing more than oats, wheat bran and other better-known fiber sources. “Fiber is the hidden health benefit of gums,” says Dr. Mar Nieto, senior principal scientist.
TIC Gums offer many products for baked products, including their Ticaloid® LC-SR 5 and Ticaloid LC-SR6 for use in fiber bread as an up to 20 percent flour replacement. Ticaloid® Fold N’Flex, Ticaloid® Tortilla and Ticaloid ® 1023T are used in tortilla and pita bread. These allow the baker to add additional water to the recipe, improve moistness and delay retrogradation and drying of the finished product. TIC Gums also supplies gum Arabic [Gum Arabic FT] for use in cookies to add chewiness and increase soluble fiber, as well as a line called Nutriloid®, which consists of blends of thick and thin soluble fibers.
TIC Gums can custom blend their products to meet clients’ needs. “We will work with customers in optimizing the dose, sensory attributes and composition of the blend,” Dr. Nieto says. “We provide a technical hotline and online technical chat that we staff with food scientists to help formulators in real time.”
Five or six years ago, many obstacles stood in the way of creating high-fiber baked products. Today, with the increasing variety of specialized fiber sources, challenges to formulation are decreasing.
Luckily for bakers, the wealth of today’s fiber/starch products allows a wide range of solutions. Plus, every supplier offers resources for bakers to help them find precise solutions. Not only is a wider selection of ingredients available, but the technical know-how from suppliers is always expanding to offer critical help in finding the right process adjustments, tailored to the individual baked product.