Fortify bakery foods with ADM ingredients
At what level should nutrients be added to bakery foods?
The selection of the proper form of the nutrient, whether it is raw or microencapsulated, and whether any neutralizing agents or masking ingredients are used, are all part of the formulation process. ADM recently added another technique of delivery that involves molecular entrapment of the nutrient in a nano complex. This improves the consumer’s satisfaction with the bakery food.
Once formulation is complete, a test bake and finished product assay is done to ascertain that the expected values of each nutrient actually are achieved. Frequently, the premix formula will be tweaked to ensure the final values are right.
Vitamins are available in both naturally derived and synthetic forms. Purity, quality, bioavailability, uniformity, functionality, stability and price are all important considerations when shopping for nutritional premixes. Bakers need to decide what they are trying to accomplish, and clearly communicate that to a reputable premix manufacturer. The premix manufacturer will do the rest.
What is fortification?
Food and Drug Administration says fortification is the addition of nutrients to foods and beverages. FDA says fortification and enrichment are synonymous, but some food experts prefer to characterize enrichments as ingredients that restore vitamins and minerals that are lost during processing.
How long have enrichments and fortifications been used?
Foods have been enriched and fortified for more than 80 years. Bakers voluntarily enriched flour and bread in 1938 with thiamin, niacin, riboflavin and iron to prevent the development of deficiency diseases in the general population.
In 1941, many military recruits were rejected from fighting in World War II because of deficiency diseases. Shortly after, the U.S. government set mandatory requirements for thiamin, niacin, riboflavin and iron enrichment in flour.
In 1996, FDA amended the standards to include folic acid enrichment in grain products. FDA says this is necessary to help women of childbearing age reduce the risk of giving birth to children diagnosed with spina bifida or other neural tube defects.
Some bakers are now adding as much as 20% of the daily value of folic acid per serving of bread in order to help lower the homocysteine content of blood, a move many clinicians believe improves the health of the cardiovascular system.
What are some common vitamins and minerals for enrichments and fortifications?
Manufacturers say vitamin D and calcium are two of the most requested fortifications. These ingredients are inexpensive, and bakers receive marketing advantages through the label claims that calcium and vitamin D allow.
How are bakery food formulas fortified with calcium?
Calcium fortification is done economically by using calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate raises dough pH and must be offset by the addition of acidic ingredients such as vinegar or Monocalcium phosphate. Although the addition of calcium benefits consumers, it must be accompanied by vitamin D for the body to metabolize it effectively.
Are there any other nutrients that bakers should consider for fortification?
Yes. One manufacturer suggests that bakers consider adding choline to their formulas. Choline is an essential nutrient for brain development and memory. Choline fortification is popular in foods that are geared toward children, the manufacturer says, because choline naturally is found in foods that most children do not like, such as cauliflower and beef liver.
Additionally, choline and folic acid share a metabolic pathway as mental donors. This means that folic acid is more efficient in the body when used with choline.
Are there any problems incorporating some fortifications into bakery foods?
Yes. Vitamin C is not an ideal fortification because it is not heat stable. When vitamin C is baked, heat causes it to oxidize, deactivating the compounds. However, when vitamin C is microencapsulated, some of the nutrient can be retained, but only about 20%, manufacturers say.
Should bakers go through the trouble of fortifying with vitamin C?
If the benefits outweigh the costs and risks. Vitamin C helps the utilization of iron. When the two are consumed together, the body is able to absorb and use iron close to its full potential.
Are any other fortifications oxidized during baking?
Yes. One manufacturer says vitamin B1 also is destroyed during the baking process. However, antioxidant systems will help vitamin B1 remain heat stable.
Can whole grains be fortified?
FDA only requires that all bleached flour be enriched with certain minerals. The FDA has not yet banned or set standards regarding whole grain fortification or enrichment.
Have any bakeries fortified or enriched whole grain bakery foods?
Yes. Sara Lee Food & Beverage, Chicago, fortifies its whole grain Earth Grains Extra Fiber breads and whole grain Heart Healthy Plus breads with fiber, calcium, vitamin D and folic acid.
Are there any side effects of enriching whole grains?
No. In fact, many manufacturers recommend that bakers always fortify whole grains with vitamin E. Whole grain and multigrain breads move toward rancidity quicker than enriched flour products. Antioxidant blends that contain vitamin E will offset the rancidity.
Can fortified bakery foods take the place of medicines?
No. Fortified foods are not meant to be medicines. They should provide a nutritional profile proportional to their caloric density. If one wants 100% DV of a laundry list of nutrients, they should probably take a vitamin pill rather than a food that they have to consume three to five times a day.