|Teff flour (brown)||12.5||355 g||33.33|
|Total appr. wt.||2||5.625||1.066 kg||100|
|Method: Bring the water to a boil, and pour over the teff flour. Stir to combine. Cool to room temperature.|
|Teff porridge||2||5.625||1.066 kg||60|
|Bread flour||3||2.125||1.422 kg||80|
|Brown sugar||8.125||231 g||13|
|Yeast (instant dry)||0.75||21 g||1.2|
|Deactivated yeast||0.125||4 g||0.2|
|Total appr. wt.||6||9.75||3 kg||168.8|
|Roll-in Butter||1||10.5||750 g||25|
Method: Combine all ingredients in a mixer with dough hook. Add water as needed to achieve medium-stiff consistency.* Mix to improved development, about four minutes on first speed and two minutes on second speed. Final dough temperature should be 73°F to 76°F. Divide dough into block size for butter lock-in, and bulk ferment for 45 to 60 minutes. Retard for eight to 15 hours at 40°F.
Sweet version: Cut dough into 4-in. by 10-in. triangles. Pipe one tablespoon of hazelnut-ginger cream centered near top of triangle. Place a chocolate stick (broken in two) on top of cream. Fold the triangle corners into middle to cover filling. Roll up dough without stretching, and egg wash. Sprinkle the top with ground hazelnuts.
Savory version: Cut into 4-in. circles using cookie cutter. Use a lattice-cutter to cut lattices in an equal number as the circles. Place two to three tablespoons of filling in the center of circle. Brush edges with egg wash or water, and place a lattice circle on top. Press gently around edges to hold in place. Re-cut the final shape with cookie cutter, and egg wash.
Proof for 90 minutes to two hours at 78°F. Egg wash just before baking. Bake at 385°F for 13 to 15 minutes. The baked teff croissants will appear dark.
* Hydration may vary with the quality and moisture content of the flour.
|Brown sugar||4.375||125 g|
|Vanilla, 1 bean|
|Hazelnut meal||4.375||125 g|
|Hazelnut paste||2.625||75 g|
|Candied ginger||0.75||20 g|
|Fresh ginger||0.75||20 g|
|Total appr. wt.||1||5.375||609 g|
|Method: Cream the butter and sugar. Add the eggs and vanilla, scraping down sides to ensure incorporation. Mix in sifted hazelnut meal and cornstarch. Add hazelnut paste, mix until incorporated. Mix in ginger. Chill until ready to fill.|
|Caramelized onion||7||200 g|
|Kale, finely chopped||7||200 g|
|Carrots, grated||3.5||100 g|
|Parmesan cheese, grated||3.5||100 g|
|Rosemary, to taste|
|Thyme, to taste|
|Total appr. wt.||1||5||600 g|
|Method: Caramelize the onions, and reserve. Sautee the kale in chicken or vegetable broth. When almost tender, add grated carrots. Turn off the heat and cover. When cool, combine all ingredients and chill.|
Flour made from commercial wheat (Triticum aestivum) has so eclipsed the modern baking industry that at times it is hard to remember that other grains are available. The health food and whole grain movements, however, encourage the integration of alternative grains into traditional bakery products. Such grains can provide additional nutritional benefits, intriguing alternative flavor profiles and a range of finished appearances. Use of alternative grains not only makes products more interesting, it also helps ensure the continuing existence of a variety of valuable and flavorful grains in an increasingly uni-granular world. The teff croissant is an example of how to include an ancient grass in viennoiserie.
The unique flavor profiles of ancient grains, such as teff, allow bakers to add a new twist to an old product. When paired with complementary fillings or inclusions, these innovative new products can be tantalizing to the taste buds, intriguing to the eyes and tempting for a variety of consumers looking for something different, healthful and perhaps reminiscent of life before sliced bread.
Teff is a whole grain out of necessity. As the world’s smallest domesticated grain, at less than 1 mm in length (one gram may contain 2,000 to 3,000 grains), it is impossible to separate the individual components as is done with processed wheat. Therefore, teff flour contains all the components and nutrients of the grass. It is high in fiber, calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper, aluminum, barium and thiamine, and boasts the full complement of amino acids, including lysine, which is absent from most other grains. Teff flour comes in a variety of colors, from ivory to deep chocolate brown. This formula uses brown teff, as it is more flavorful and also lends a richer, rustic appearance to the final product. Crusts containing teff can color deeply without burning, which allows the baker to achieve a pleasing rustic quality in the product.
When using teff, you need to remember that teff flour is not identical to wheat flour. It is a gluten-free grain and cannot be used to replace wheat flour in a formula since gluten provides the strength and structure of leavened doughs. This teff croissant formula replaces 20 percent of the total flour weight (TFW) with teff flour, thus providing the flavor, color and some texture of the ancient grass without taking away the strength and structure provided by the wheat flour. However, even this amount of teff flour creates a more delicate final dough, and care must be taken when shaping the croissants.
Also, teff flour does not retain water well. It tends to weep, and can make the dough very sticky and difficult to work with. But pre-gelatinization of the teff flour before inclusion in the final dough makes it much easier to work with. This simply involves making a porridge of the teff flour and boiling water. The boiling water cooks the grain and breaks open the starch particles, thus allowing them to absorb and retain more water. The cooled porridge is then added to the final dough with all the other ingredients.
This teff croissant formula includes deactivated yeast. Deactivated yeast contains glutathione, a naturally-occurring protein in yeast cells, and is commonly added to doughs to improve their extensibility. It is necessary in this formula because the teff croissant dough is delicate, and croissant dough must be laminated, which requires repeated stretching and folding. The hydration of the teff croissant dough is kept low so that the teff flour can retain all of the water, making it a stiff dough. The deactivated yeast allows the dough to be stiff yet extensible at the same time.
The method of making these teff croissants is identical to the method for making traditional croissants with bread flour, until you arrive at the final sheeting and shaping. The teff croissants are sheeted to 4 mm (thicker than a traditional croissant dough) in order to retain their height and shape in the final bake. Unlike a traditional croissant, they are cut into a longer, thinner triangles because the dough is not stretched prior to final shaping.
Laminated viennoiserie like croissant lends itself well to experimentation, from dough ingredients and inclusions in the lamination fat to shaping, fillings and toppings. Here, teff flour and brown sugar are used in the croissant to create a warm, rich, rustic dough. The fillings were selected based on the flavor profile of the teff flour, the availability of local produce and traditional Ethiopian cuisine.
Chocolate sticks or almond cream are popular traditional fillings for sweet croissants, while ham and cheese are popular savory fillings. This rolled viennoseirie formula produces a versatile dough. Its fillings–sweet or savory–can be changed with the availability of local ingredients or with the seasons.
The warm colors, rustic appearance and rich, earthy flavors of teff make it a good choice for developing seasonal creations. Teff’s flavor profile contains earthy tones of hazelnut and chocolate. The texture is slightly gritty, similar to that of course-ground whole wheat flour.
When developing new flavor combinations, it is always beneficial to look at the history of the ingredient–how was it used in the past? What was it paired with? Teff is indigenous to Ethiopia, and Ethiopian cuisine includes niter kibbeh, or butter infused with ginger and garlic.
This formula’s savory component includes the traditional Ethiopian flavors of ginger and root vegetables, as well as a variety of vegetables, nuts, dry cheese and hearty herbs and features a non-traditional round shape with a lattice top. This shaping keeps the croissant crispy, so the filling does not soften the dough, and it displays the filling, giving the croissant a rustic look.
The sweet version of the teff croissant is spruced up with an earthy hazelnut cream spiced with ginger and paired with a chocolate stick and is shaped like an almond croissant with the ends tucked inside. This shaping keeps the filling from leaking out. It is topped with crushed hazelnut, giving it a nutty flair as well as indicating what is inside.
These sweet and savory teff croissants offer a chance to source local, seasonal ingredients while simultaneously supporting an ancient grain from across the world.